Lebih 30 Tahun Teroka Cakerawala, Ini Antara Imej Menarik Dirakam Teleskop Angkasa Hubble
Lebih 30 Tahun Teroka Cakerawala, Ini Antara Imej Menarik Dirakam Teleskop Angkasa Hubble
Bakal expired beberapa tahun lagi, ini koleksi imej menakjubkan yang pernah dirakam Teleskop Angkasa Hubble.
Sejak beberapa hari lalu dunia ‘dihidangkan’ dengan himpunan imej cakerawala yang telah berjaya dirakam oleh teleskop angkasa milik Pentadbiran Aeronautik dan Angkasa Kebangsaan (NASA) yang dikenali sebagai James Webb. Rakaman itu memperlihatkan dimensi baharu dalam ‘pencerapan’ yang lebih beresolusi tinggi berbanding sebelum ini.
Ketika orang ramai sedang hangat memperkatakan mengenai teleskop terbaru itu, jangan pula dilupa pada ‘perintisnya’ yang telah ‘berkhidmat’ sejak lebih 30 tahun yang lalu iaitu Teleskop Angkasa Hubble.
Pertama kali dibina pada tahun 1940-an, Hubble pada awalnya dipanggil sebagai Teleskop Angkasa Besar. Menurut NASA, perancangan dan penyelidikan untuk membina teleskop itu mengambil masa selama berdekad-dekad sebelum dilancarkan pada 24 April 1990.
Sejak dilancarkan, Hubble telah melakukan pelbagai pemerhatian sains yang telah merevolusikan manusia dan memberikan pemahaman tentang alam semesta.
Daripada menentukan usia alam semesta sehingga memerhatikan perubahan dramatik pada jasad angkasa dalam sistem suria kita sendiri, Hubble telah menjadi salah satu instrumen saintifik terhebat manusia – NASA
Seperti yang dinyatakan oleh NASA, Hubble telah ‘mencerap’ pelbagai penemuan menakjubkan yang melibatkan komet, galaksi, bintang dan banyak lagi.
Berikut merupakan antara beberapa imej yang pernah dirakam oleh Hubble:
Galaxy NGC 2525
Pictured here is the captivating galaxy NGC 2525. Located nearly 70 million light-years from Earth, this galaxy is part of the constellation of Puppis in the southern hemisphere. Together with the Carina and the Vela constellations, it makes up an image of the Argo from ancient greek mythology. Another kind of monster, a supermassive black hole, lurks at the centre of NGC 2525. Nearly every galaxy contains a supermassive black hole, which can range in mass from hundreds of thousands to billions of times the mass of the Sun. Hubble has captured a series of images of NGC2525 as part of one of its major investigations; measuring the expansion rate of the Universe, which can help answer fundamental questions about our Universe’s very nature. ESA/Hubble has now published a unique time-lapse of this galaxy and it’s fading supernova.
Galaxies, galaxies everywhere – as far as the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope can see. This view of nearly 10,000 galaxies is the deepest visible-light image of the cosmos. Called the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, this galaxy-studded view represents a “deep” core sample of the universe, cutting across billions of light-years. The snapshot includes galaxies of various ages, sizes, shapes, and colours. The smallest, reddest galaxies, about 100, may be among the most distant known, existing when the universe was just 800 million years old. The nearest galaxies – the larger, brighter, well-defined spirals and ellipticals – thrived about 1 billion years ago, when the cosmos was 13 billion years old. In vibrant contrast to the rich harvest of classic spiral and elliptical galaxies, there is a zoo of oddball galaxies littering the field. Some look like toothpicks; others like links on a bracelet. A few appear to be interacting. These oddball galaxies chronicle a period when the universe was younger and more chaotic. Order and structure were just beginning to emerge. The Ultra Deep Field observations, taken by the Advanced Camera for Surveys, represent a narrow, deep view of the cosmos. Peering into the Ultra Deep Field is like looking through a 2.5 metre-long soda straw. In ground-based photographs, the patch of sky in which the galaxies reside (just one-tenth the diameter of the full Moon) is largely empty. Located in the constellation Fornax, the region is so empty that only a handful of stars within the Milky Way galaxy can be seen in the image. In this image, blue and green correspond to colours that can be seen by the human eye, such as hot, young, blue stars and the glow of Sun-like stars in the disks of galaxies. Red represents near-infrared light, which is invisible to the human eye, such as the red glow of dust-enshrouded galaxies. The image required 800 exposures taken over the course of 400 Hubble orbits around Earth. The total amount of exposure time was 11.3 days,
Fomalhaut dan Fomalhaut B
This is an image of one-half of the Hubble Space Telescope field of view in the Sagittarius Window Eclipsing Extrasolar Planet Search (SWEEPS). The field contains approximately 150,000 stars, down to 30th magnitude. The stars in the Galactic disk and bulge have a mixture of colours and masses. The field is so crowded with stars because Hubble was looking across 26,000 light-years of space in the direction of the centre of our Galaxy. Half of these stars are bright enough for Hubble to monitor for any small, brief and periodic dips in brightness caused by the passage of an extrasolar planet passing in front of the star, an event called a transit. Hubble took approximately 520 pictures of this field, at red and blue wavelengths, 22 to 29 February, 2004. Hubble identified 16 candidate stars that are orbited by planets with periods of a few days. Planets so close to their stars with such short orbital periods are called “hot Jupiters.” These are considered “candidate” extrasolar planets because most of them are too faint to allow for spectroscopic observations that would allow for a precise measure of the planet’s mass. Tapestry of Blazing Starbirth
This image is one of the most photogenic examples of the many turbulent stellar nurseries the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope has observed during its 30-year lifetime. The portrait features the giant nebula NGC 2014 and its neighbour NGC 2020 which together form part of a vast star-forming region in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way, approximately 163 000 light-years away. Horsehead nebula
This new Hubble image, captured and released to celebrate the telescope’s 23rd year in orbit, shows part of the sky in the constellation of Orion (The Hunter). Rising like a giant seahorse from turbulent waves of dust and gas is the Horsehead Nebula, otherwise known as Barnard 33. This image shows the region in infrared light, which has longer wavelengths than visible light and can pierce through the dusty material that usually obscures the nebula’s inner regions. The result is a rather ethereal and fragile-looking structure, made of delicate folds of gas — very different to the nebula’s appearance in visible light. Gelombang NGC 1275
The behemoth galaxy NGC 1275, also known as Perseus A, lies at the centre of Perseus Galaxy Cluster. By combining multi-wavelength images into this single composite, the dynamics of the galaxy become visible. Detail and structure from optical, radio and X-ray wavelengths have been combined for an aesthetically pleasing image which shows the violent events in the galaxy’s heart. NGC 1275 is an active galaxy well-known for its radio source (Perseus A) and is a strong emitter of X-rays due to the presence of the supermassive black hole in its centre. Hubble data from the Advanced Camera for Surveys covers visible-light wavelengths and is shown in the red, green and blue. Radio data from NRAO’s Very Large Array at 0.91 m was also used. In this composite image, dust lanes, star-forming regions, hydrogen filaments, foreground stars, and background galaxies are contributions from the Hubble optical data. The X-ray data contributes to the soft but violet shells around the outside of the centre. The pinkish lobes toward the centre of the galaxy are from radio emission. The radio jets from the black hole fill the X-ray cavities. Chandra data from the ACIS covers X-ray wavelengths from 0.1771 to 4.133 nm (0.3-7 KeV). Lohong hitam besar di NGC 5548
This is the galaxy known as NGC 5548. At its heart, though not visible here, is a supermassive black hole behaving in a strange and unexpected manner. Researchers detected a clumpy gas stream flowing quickly outwards and blocking 90 percent of the X-rays emitted by the black hole. This activity could provide insights into how supermassive black holes interact with their host galaxies. Musytari dan Europa pada Ogos 2020
This latest image of Jupiter, taken by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope on 25 August 2020, was captured when the planet was 653 million kilometres from Earth. Hubble’s sharp view is giving researchers an updated weather report on the monster planet’s turbulent atmosphere, including a remarkable new storm brewing, and a cousin of the Great Red Spot changing colour — again. The new image also features Jupiter’s icy moon Europa. Westerlund 2
This NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image of the cluster Westerlund 2 and its surroundings has been released to celebrate Hubble’s 25th year in orbit and a quarter of a century of new discoveries, stunning images and outstanding science. The image’s central region, containing the star cluster, blends visible-light data taken by the Advanced Camera for Surveys and near-infrared exposures taken by the Wide Field Camera 3. The surrounding region is composed of visible-light observations taken by the Advanced Camera for Surveys. Globular cluster 47 Tucanae
This NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image shows a globular cluster known as NGC 104 — or, more commonly, 47 Tucanae, since it is part of the constellation of Tucana (The Toucan) in the southern sky. After Omega Centauri it is the brightest globular cluster in the night sky, hosting tens of thousands of stars. Scientists using Hubble observed the white dwarfs in the cluster. These dying stars migrate from the crowded centre of the cluster to its outskirts. Whilst astronomers knew about this process they had never seen it in action, until the detailed study of 47 Tucanae. AG Carinae
In celebration of the 31st anniversary of the launch of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers aimed the celebrated observatory at one of the brightest stars seen in our galaxy to capture its beauty. The giant star featured in this latest Hubble Space Telescope anniversary image is waging a tug-of-war between gravity and radiation to avoid self-destruction. The star, called AG Carinae, is surrounded by an expanding shell of gas and dust. The nebula is about five light-years wide, which equals the distance from here to our nearest star, Alpha Centauri. RS Puppis
This Hubble image shows RS Puppis, a type of variable star known as a Cepheid variable. As variable stars go, Cepheids have comparatively long periods — RS Puppis, for example, varies in brightness by almost a factor of five every 40 or so days. RS Puppis is unusual; this variable star is shrouded by thick, dark clouds of dust enabling a phenomenon known as a light echo to be shown with stunning clarity. These Hubble observations show the ethereal object embedded in its dusty environment, set against a dark sky filled with background galaxies. Bintang V838 Monocerotis
The Hubble Space Telescope’s latest image of the star V838 Monocerotis (V838 Mon) reveals dramatic changes in the illumination of surrounding dusty cloud structures. The effect, called a light echo, has been unveiling never-before-seen dust patterns ever since the star suddenly brightened for several weeks in early 2002. Pillars of creation
The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope has revisited one of its most iconic and popular images: the Eagle Nebula’s Pillars of Creation. This image shows the pillars as seen in visible light, capturing the multi-coloured glow of gas clouds, wispy tendrils of dark cosmic dust, and the rust-coloured elephants’ trunks of the nebula’s famous pillars. The dust and gas in the pillars is seared by the intense radiation from young stars and eroded by strong winds from massive nearby stars. With these new images comes better contrast and a clearer view for astronomers to study how the structure of the pillars is changing over time.
Walaupun munculnya James Webb, Hubble masih lagi berada berada di angkasa dan meneruskan ‘khidmatnya’. Malah, ia juga dipercayai akan terus beroperasi sehingga tahun 2030 atau 2040.
Bagaimanapun, teleskop itu sudah melepasi jangka hayat 15 tahun, jadi sebarang ‘masa tambahan’ hanya akan meletakkan ‘nyawanya berada di hujung tanduk’.
Sumber: Esa Hubble, NASA, Screen Rant, MIT Technology Review
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